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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:guoyou8.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我(wo)应该使用卧式加工(gong)中心吗?——加工(gong)工(gong)件(jian)特征

加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)类(lei)型(xing)的(de)选(xuan)定需要考(kao)虑加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)对象(xiang)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺、加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)范围(wei)和设备价格等因(yin)素,根据所(suo)选(xuan)零件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)族 (组)进行(xing)。如果您的(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)具有以下特征,则(ze)应(ying)选(xuan)择(ze)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin):加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)两面(mian)以上的(de)零件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)或加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)在四周呈径(jing)向(xiang)辐(fu)射(she)状排列的(de)孔系、面(mian),如箱体类(lei)、壳体类(lei)零件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)等,应(ying)选(xuan)择(ze)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin);被加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)位置精(jing)度要求较(jiao)高,宜选(xuan)用高精(jing)密卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin);零件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)在一(yi)次装夹中(zhong)需要完成多面(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时,可选(xuan)择(ze)立卧(wo)复合式(shi)(shi)(shi)五面(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)。当(dang)然(ran),上述各点也不是绝对的(de),一(yi)方面(mian)是由于加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)(xin)正朝着复合化方向(xiang)发展,另一(yi)方面(mian)选(xuan)型(xing)时要综合考(kao)虑生产效(xiao)率(lv)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺要求和设备资金(jin)等因(yin)素,要以性(xing)(xing)价比来衡量选(xuan)型(xing)方案的(de)合理性(xing)(xing)。

建议:采购用(yong)(yong)户需要(yao)根(gen)据加(jia)工对象、加(jia)工工艺(yi)、加(jia)工范(fan)围等(deng)特征来确定是(shi)否使用(yong)(yong)卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)以(yi)及使用(yong)(yong)什么样的(de)卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心(xin)。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工作(zuo)台尺寸

这(zhei)是卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心的(de)(de)主(zhu)(zhu)参数,主(zhu)(zhu)要取决(jue)于典型(xing)零(ling)(ling)件(jian)的(de)(de)外(wai)廓尺(chi)(chi)寸(cun)(cun)、装(zhuang)夹方式(shi)等。应(ying)选(xuan)择比(bi)典型(xing)零(ling)(ling)件(jian)外(wai)廓尺(chi)(chi)寸(cun)(cun)稍(shao)大(da)一些的(de)(de)工(gong)作(zuo)台,以便留(liu)出(chu)安装(zhuang)夹具所需的(de)(de)空间,保证零(ling)(ling)件(jian)在其上面能够(gou)顺利装(zhuang)夹,此外(wai)还应(ying)考(kao)虑工(gong)作(zuo)台的(de)(de)承载能力(li)、T形槽数量和尺(chi)(chi)寸(cun)(cun)等,小(xiao)尺(chi)(chi)寸(cun)(cun)的(de)(de)比(bi)较通用,比(bi)如站内的(de)(de)卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等。

建议(yi):目前市场(chang)上的卧式加工(gong)中心(xin)工(gong)作(zuo)台尺寸多为1000以下的,能够满足(zu)大多数用户的需求(qiu)。

(2)坐标轴行程

最(zui)基(ji)本的(de)(de)(de)坐标(biao)(biao)轴是(shi)X、Y、Z三(san)轴,其行(xing)(xing)程和(he)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作台(tai)(tai)尺(chi)寸有相应(ying)的(de)(de)(de)比例关系,工(gong)(gong)(gong)作台(tai)(tai)面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)大(da)小(xiao)基(ji)本上确定了加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)空间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)大(da)小(xiao)。如个别零件的(de)(de)(de)尺(chi)寸大(da)于卧式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心行(xing)(xing)程时,则(ze)必(bi)须要求零件的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)区域处于机(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)行(xing)(xing)程范围之内,此(ci)外(wai)还要考虑零件是(shi)否(fou)与机(ji)床交换刀具(ju)的(de)(de)(de)空间(jian)干涉、与机(ji)床防护罩等附件发生干涉等系列(lie)问(wen)题。而对需要多(duo)轴联(lian)动加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)卧式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心 (如增加(jia)(jia)回转(zhuan)坐标(biao)(biao)A、B、C或附加(jia)(jia)坐标(biao)(biao)U、V、W),如四(si)轴、五轴联(lian)动卧式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心,这(zhei)就需要特殊订货,同时必(bi)须对相应(ying)配套的(de)(de)(de)编程软件、测(ce)量手段以及机(ji)床价格等有全(quan)面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)考虑和(he)安排。

建议:采购用户需要根据加工(gong)工(gong)件规(gui)格选择不同(tong)坐标轴行程(cheng)的卧式加工(gong)中心,多轴联动需要特殊定制(zhi)。

(3)主轴(zhou)电动机(ji)功率与转矩

它反映了(le)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)切(qie)削效率(lv)(lv),也从一个(ge)侧面反映了(le)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)切(qie)削刚性和机床整(zheng)体刚度。主(zhu)轴电(dian)动机功率(lv)(lv)在同(tong)类规(gui)格的(de)(de)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)上可以有(you)各种不同(tong)的(de)(de)配置,同(tong)类规(gui)格的(de)(de)主(zhu)轴转速不同(tong)的(de)(de)卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin),主(zhu)轴电(dian)动机功率(lv)(lv)可以相差很大。

建议:采购(gou)用户应根(gen)据自(zi)身典型零件毛坯余量(liang)大小、切削(xue)能力 (单位时间金属切削(xue)量(liang))、要(yao)求达到的加工精度、实际能配置的刀具(ju)等因素综合选择。

(4)主轴(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)与进给速(su)度(du)

需要高速(su)(su)切削(xue)或(huo)超(chao)低速(su)(su)切削(xue)时,应关注主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)的(de)转速(su)(su)范围。特别是(shi)高速(su)(su)切削(xue)时,既(ji)要有高的(de)主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)转速(su)(su),同时也(ye)(ye)要具(ju)备与(yu)主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)转速(su)(su)相(xiang)(xiang)匹配(pei)的(de)进给(ji)速(su)(su)度(du)(du)。目前卧式加工中心高速(su)(su)化(hua)趋势发(fa)展很快(kuai),主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)从每(mei)分钟几千转到几万转,直线(xian)坐标(biao)快(kuai)速(su)(su)移动(dong)速(su)(su)度(du)(du)从10—20/min上升到80m/min以上,当然(ran)其功能部件(jian)如电主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)、直线(xian)电动(dong)机、直线(xian)滚(gun)动(dong)导轨、主(zhu)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)轴(zhou)(zhou)(zhou)承(cheng)等(deng)及相(xiang)(xiang)配(pei)套的(de)光栅尺、刀具(ju)等(deng)附(fu)件(jian)价格也(ye)(ye)都相(xiang)(xiang)应上升,甚至很昂贵。

建议:采购(gou)用户必须根据(ju)自身(shen)的(de)技术能(neng)(neng)力(li)和配套能(neng)(neng)力(li)合理作出卧式加工中心的(de)合理选型。

(5)刀库容量

可以(yi)(yi)根(gen)据被加(jia)工(gong)零(ling)件(jian)的工(gong)艺分析(xi)结果来确定所(suo)需(xu)数(shu)量(liang),通常以(yi)(yi)典(dian)型零(ling)件(jian)在(zai)一次装夹中所(suo)需(xu)刀(dao)(dao)具数(shu)量(liang)来确定刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)的容(rong)量(liang),卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)以(yi)(yi)选(xuan)用(yong)40把刀(dao)(dao)左右的刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)为宜。同时要关(guan)注(zhu)最(zui)大刀(dao)(dao)具直径与长度以(yi)(yi)及最(zui)大刀(dao)(dao)具重量(liang)等。用(yong)于(yu)FMC或FMS的卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin),应选(xuan)择大容(rong)量(liang)刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku),甚至配置可交(jiao)换刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)(ku)。

建议:普通卧式加工中(zhong)心选(xuan)择40把刀左右的刀库即够用,用于(yu)FMC或FMS的卧式加工中(zhong)心应选(xuan)择大容量刀库。

3我(wo)需要(yao)选用什么精(jing)(jing)度的卧(wo)式加工中心?——精(jing)(jing)度的选定

加(jia)工中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)等级主要(yao)(yao)根据典型零件关键部位(wei)的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)来确(que)定。其(qi)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)主要(yao)(yao)包括定位(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)、重(zhong)复(fu)定位(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)和铣(xian)圆精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du),特别(bie)是(shi)重(zhong)复(fu)定位(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du),它反(fan)映了(le)坐标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)定位(wei)稳(wen)定性,是(shi)衡量(liang)该轴(zhou)是(shi)否稳(wen)定可靠(kao)工作的(de)(de)(de)基本(ben)(ben)(ben)指标(biao)(biao)。特别(bie)值(zhi)得注意(yi)的(de)(de)(de)是(shi),选(xuan)型订(ding)货时必须全面分析(xi),不(bu)能简单地看(kan)产品样(yang)本(ben)(ben)(ben)所(suo)列的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)数(shu)值(zhi),因(yin)为标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)不(bu)同(tong)、规(gui)定数(shu)值(zhi)不(bu)同(tong)、检(jian)测(ce)方(fang)法不(bu)同(tong),数(shu)值(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)含义就不(bu)同(tong)。刊物、样(yang)本(ben)(ben)(ben)、合格(ge)证所(suo)列出的(de)(de)(de)单位(wei)长度(du)(du)上允许的(de)(de)(de)正负值(zhi)(一(yi)般为正负0.05)常(chang)(chang)常(chang)(chang)是(shi)不(bu)明确(que)的(de)(de)(de),订(ding)货时要(yao)(yao)特别(bie)注意(yi),一(yi)定要(yao)(yao)弄清是(shi)IOS(国(guo)际标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)化组织标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))、VDI(德国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))、JIS(日本(ben)(ben)(ben)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))、NMTBA(美(mei)(mei)国(guo)机床制造商协会(hui)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))还是(shi)NAS(美(mei)(mei)国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))及GB(中(zhong)国(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun))等,进而分析(xi)各种不(bu)同(tong)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)所(suo)规(gui)定的(de)(de)(de)检(jian)测(ce)计算方(fang)法和检(jian)测(ce)环境条件,才不(bu)会(hui)产生误(wu)解。

铣(xian)圆精度是综合(he)评价卧式加(jia)工中心有关数控轴的伺(si)服(fu)跟随运动特性(xing)和数控系(xi)统插(cha)补功(gong)能的主要指(zhi)标之一(yi)。不论(lun)典型零件是否有此(ci)需要,为了(le)将来可能的需要及(ji)更好地控制精度,必(bi)须重视这一(yi)指(zhi)标。

要特(te)别注(zhu)意区别加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)与机(ji)床(chuang)精(jing)(jing)度(du)两个不同的(de)概念。将生(sheng)产(chan)厂家样(yang)本上或产(chan)品(pin)合格证上的(de)位置精(jing)(jing)度(du)当作(zuo)(zuo)卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)的(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)是(shi)错误(wu)的(de)。样(yang)本或合格证上标(biao)明(ming)的(de)位置精(jing)(jing)度(du)是(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)本身(shen)的(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du),而(er)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)是(shi)包括(kuo)卧式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)本身(shen)所允许(xu)误(wu)差在(zai)内的(de)整个工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺系统各种因素(su)所产(chan)生(sheng)的(de)误(wu)差总和。整个工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺系统误(wu)差产(chan)生(sheng)的(de)原因是(shi)很复杂(za)的(de),很难用线性(xing)关系定量表(biao)达。选型时,可参(can)考工(gong)(gong)(gong)序能(neng)力系数Cp的(de)评定方法来作(zuo)(zuo)为机(ji)床(chuang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)精(jing)(jing)度(du)的(de)选型依据。一(yi)般而(er)言,Cp应大(da)于1.33。

站内高精密(mi)的几款卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin):MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱式(shi)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)性能(neng)都(dou)不错。

建(jian)议(yi):采购用(yong)户在挑选(xuan)不(bu)(bu)同(tong)精(jing)度的(de)卧式加工中心时,需(xu)要考虑:不(bu)(bu)同(tong)标(biao)准(zhun)对应的(de)单位(wei)长度含义;重视铣圆精(jing)度指标(biao);区别加工精(jing)度和机床(chuang)精(jing)度。

4我应该(gai)选择哪种(zhong)数(shu)控系统?——数(shu)控系统的(de)选定

数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)功能(neng)(neng)(neng)分(fen)为基本(ben)功能(neng)(neng)(neng)与选择(ze)(ze)功能(neng)(neng)(neng),可以(yi)从操作方(fang)式、用(yong)户(hu)功能(neng)(neng)(neng)、控(kong)(kong)制方(fang)式、驱动形式、反馈形式、接口形式、检测(ce)与测(ce)量、报警(jing)与提(ti)示、故障诊断等(deng)方(fang)面综(zong)合衡量。基本(ben)功能(neng)(neng)(neng)是必须提(ti)供(gong)的(de),而只(zhi)有当用(yong)户(hu)选择(ze)(ze)了选择(ze)(ze)功能(neng)(neng)(neng)后,厂家(jia)才会另(ling)(ling)(ling)行(xing)提(ti)供(gong)并另(ling)(ling)(ling)行(xing)加价(jia),且(qie)定(ding)价(jia)一般较高。总体(ti)而言,数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)功能(neng)(neng)(neng)一定(ding)要(yao)根据加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)性能(neng)(neng)(neng)需要(yao)来(lai)选择(ze)(ze),订购(gou)时(shi)既要(yao)把需要(yao)的(de)功能(neng)(neng)(neng)订全,不能(neng)(neng)(neng)遗漏,同(tong)时(shi)避免(mian)使(shi)用(yong)率不高而造成浪费,还需注意(yi)各(ge)功能(neng)(neng)(neng)之间(jian)的(de)关联(lian)性。另(ling)(ling)(ling)一方(fang)面,在可供(gong)选择(ze)(ze)的(de)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)中(zhong),如(ru)SIEMENS系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)、国(guo)(guo)产华中(zhong)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)等(deng),性能(neng)(neng)(neng)高低(di)差(cha)别很(hen)大(da),价(jia)格(ge)亦相差(cha)很(hen)大(da),进口系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)或国(guo)(guo)产系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)亦决定(ding)其价(jia)格(ge)的(de)高低(di)。总体(ti)上来(lai)看,法兰(lan)克系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)性价(jia)比(bi)比(bi)较高,国(guo)(guo)内卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)使(shi)用(yong)比(bi)例比(bi)较高。站(zhan)内卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)使(shi)用(yong)法兰(lan)克数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)也(ye)比(bi)较多(duo),比(bi)如(ru)MH-800B 、 LH-500B都是比(bi)较好的(de)选择(ze)(ze)。多(duo)台卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)选型时(shi),应尽可能(neng)(neng)(neng)选用(yong)同(tong)一厂家(jia)的(de)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong),这(zhei)样(yang)操作、编(bian)程、维修(xiu)都比(bi)较方(fang)便。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我(wo)需要(yao)选择几台(tai)卧式加工中心能(neng)达(da)到的我(wo)的产(chan)量要(yao)求?——生产(chan)能(neng)力的估算

选(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)(xing)时,必须要考虑卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)能(neng)(neng)达(da)到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)产能(neng)(neng)力(li),即要求(qiu)选(xuan)(xuan)定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)在(zai)一(yi)(yi)年(nian)之内(nei)能(neng)(neng)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几种(zhong)典(dian)型(xing)(xing)零件、加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)多少数(shu)量的(de)(de)(de)零件。要得到(dao)这(zhei)(zhei)些数(shu)据必须对每(mei)一(yi)(yi)种(zhong)确定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)典(dian)型(xing)(xing)零件进(jin)(jin)行(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时和生(sheng)产节拍的(de)(de)(de)估算(suan)。一(yi)(yi)般步骤为:首先,根(gen)据已选(xuan)(xuan)定(ding)的(de)(de)(de)典(dian)型(xing)(xing)零件进(jin)(jin)行(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)分析,初步确定(ding)一(yi)(yi)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路线,在(zai)这(zhei)(zhei)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路线中(zhong)(zhong)选(xuan)(xuan)出(chu)准(zhun)备在(zai)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序;第二(er),根(gen)据现(xian)用的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参数(shu),估算(suan)出(chu)每(mei)道在(zai)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)(de)单个工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序时间;第三,由每(mei)个单工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序时间计(ji)算(suan)出(chu)选(xuan)(xuan)定(ding)零件在(zai)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)上加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)(de)总时间,进(jin)(jin)而(er)计(ji)算(suan)出(chu)年(nian)产量即生(sheng)产能(neng)(neng)力(li)。如(ru)果(guo)估算(suan)结果(guo)达(da)不到(dao)目标值(zhi),但相差不大,则(ze)(ze)可以通过修改工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参数(shu)的(de)(de)(de)方法(fa)加(jia)以调整;如(ru)果(guo)相差很大,则(ze)(ze)应(ying)考虑增加(jia)卧(wo)(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)台数(shu)的(de)(de)(de)配(pei)置。

建议(yi):采购用户需要根据工件加(jia)工工时(shi)和生产节拍(pai)的估算(suan),决定卧(wo)式加(jia)工中心配备台数。

6卧式加工中心有好(hao)多选配的附件(jian)(jian)我应该(gai)如何选配?——其他功能部件(jian)(jian)及附件(jian)(jian)的选定

(1)坐标轴(zhou)数和(he)联动轴(zhou)数

坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)数和(he)联(lian)动轴(zhou)数均应满(man)足(zu)典(dian)型零(ling)件加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)要(yao)求。一(yi)般情况下,同(tong)(tong)厂(chang)家(jia)、同(tong)(tong)规格(ge)、同(tong)(tong)等精度的卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心,增加(jia)一(yi)个标(biao)(biao)准坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou),价格(ge)约增加(jia)30%—50%。尽管增加(jia)坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)轴(zhou)数可以强化加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心的功(gong)能,是机床上档次的标(biao)(biao)志之一(yi),但(dan)最(zui)终还是要(yao)在(zai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)艺要(yao)求和(he)资金(jin)条件下平衡决定。

(2)工(gong)作台

卧式加工(gong)中心可(ke)配置用于分度的回(hui)转(zhuan)工(gong)作台(tai)(tai)和数(shu)控(kong)回(hui)转(zhuan)工(gong)作台(tai)(tai),后者能够实(shi)现任(ren)意分度,作为B轴(zhou)与其他轴(zhou)联动控(kong)制。回(hui)转(zhuan)工(gong)作台(tai)(tai)配置与否以(yi)及如何配置必(bi)须以(yi)实(shi)际需要(yao)来确定,以(yi)经济、实(shi)用为目的。

(3)自动换刀装置 (ATC)

ATC的(de)选择主(zhu)要考虑换刀(dao)时间与(yu)(yu)可靠(kao)性。过分(fen)强调(diao)换刀(dao)时间会使加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)的(de)价格大(da)幅度(du)提(ti)高并使故障率上(shang)升(sheng)。据(ju)统计,加(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)的(de)故障中约有(you)50%与(yu)(yu)ATC有(you)关(guan),因此,在满足使用(yong)(yong)要求的(de)前提(ti)下,尽量选用(yong)(yong)可靠(kao)性高的(de)ATC,以降(jiang)低故障率和(he)整机成(cheng)本

(4)必要(yao)的附(fu)件、配(pei)套件

选(xuan)(xuan)型时,还应(ying)注(zhu)意选(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)(yong)一(yi)些配(pei)套件(jian)及附(fu)件(jian),尽量(liang)避免因缺少一(yi)个几(ji)万元就能购买(mai)的(de)(de)附(fu)件(jian)而影响卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)(de)正常(chang)运行。慎重(zhong)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)刀(dao)柄和(he)刀(dao)具(ju)也是(shi)保(bao)证卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心正常(chang)运行的(de)(de)关键,最佳的(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)办(ban)法(fa)应(ying)是(shi)根据典型零件(jian)所需(xu)(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)品种和(he)数量(liang)来确(que)定,并在使用(yong)(yong)中(zhong)(zhong)陆续添置(zhi)。在卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)(de)构(gou)成中(zhong)(zhong),排(pai)屑装置(zhi)、防护装置(zhi)和(he)对(dui)刀(dao)装置(zhi) (如刀(dao)具(ju)预调(diao)仪)等(deng)均是(shi)必需(xu)(xu)(xu)的(de)(de),对(dui)一(yi)些尽管(guan)不是(shi)必需(xu)(xu)(xu)的(de)(de)配(pei)套件(jian),但如果价格不高,对(dui)使用(yong)(yong)带来很多方便(bian),也应(ying)尽量(liang)选(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)(yong),如附(fu)件(jian)铣(xian)头、储(chu)刀(dao)料(liao)架、运刀(dao)具(ju)车、装卸(xie)器(qi)等(deng)。

建议:配(pei)件(jian)越(yue)高,能实现的功能越(yue)多,但价格(ge)也(ye)越(yue)贵,采购用(yong)户需要根据加工需求酌(zhuo)情选(xuan)配(pei)。

7卧式加工中心选型时(shi)还有什么其他(ta)需要(yao)注意的?——需要(yao)注意的一些(xie)问题

(1)结构设计

加工中心对其床(chuang)身(shen)、立柱、工作台、主轴以及刀库等功能部件的(de)结构设计有(you)着很高(gao)的(de)要(yao)求,以达到其高(gao)强度(du)、高(gao)刚度(du)、高(gao)抗(kang)振性(xing)和稳定性(xing)的(de)目(mu)的(de)。选型时,应特别注(zhu)意把其结构作为(wei)一项重要(yao)的(de)具体内容来进行要(yao)求与考(kao)虑。

(2)功(gong)能(neng)与加(jia)工的适应性

虽(sui)然加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心可以进(jin)行钻、扩、铣、镗、铰、攻螺纹乃至车削 (如车铣复合加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心)等多种加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong),但(dan)是(shi)在具(ju)体选择时,还应根据具(ju)体需要(yao)来考虑机床(chuang)的功能与加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)是(shi)否(fou)相适应等问题。要(yao)注意(yi)以下几点:

A、复杂(za)曲线(xian)加(jia)工时(shi)(shi),要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)考虑(lv)CNC是否有所(suo)需要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)的(de)曲线(xian)插补功能,或(huo)选择什么方式(shi)逼近加(jia)工曲线(xian)并(bing)保证(zheng)所(suo)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求的(de)表(biao)面粗糙度。三维加(jia)工时(shi)(shi),要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)考虑(lv)选择适合的(de)刀具(ju)结构,还要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)考虑(lv)程(cheng)序编制能力,如(ru)有必(bi)(bi)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)则必(bi)(bi)须配备(bei)自(zi)动编程(cheng)装(zhuang)置(zhi)或(huo)后置(zhi)处理(li)编程(cheng)装(zhuang)置(zhi)。

B、需(xu)要(yao)进(jin)行螺(luo)(luo)(luo)纹切削(xue) (非攻螺(luo)(luo)(luo)纹方式)时,不仅(jin)要(yao)看是(shi)否(fou)(fou)(fou)有(you)螺(luo)(luo)(luo)纹切削(xue)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)、螺(luo)(luo)(luo)旋(xuan)线插补功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)和(he)主(zhu)轴(zhou)转动与进(jin)给同步功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng),还要(yao)考(kao)虑机(ji)床是(shi)否(fou)(fou)(fou)有(you)径向进(jin)给装(zhuang)置、是(shi)否(fou)(fou)(fou)有(you)主(zhu)轴(zhou)在旋(xuan)转方向上任意角度位置准确定(ding)位功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)。否(fou)(fou)(fou)则(ze),仅(jin)在数(shu)控系统中用了(le)螺(luo)(luo)(luo)纹切削(xue)功(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)仍(reng)然无法进(jin)行螺(luo)(luo)(luo)纹切削(xue)C、采用金刚铰(jiao)、浮动镗和(he)挤(ji)压加(jia)工(gong)等特种加(jia)工(gong)时,既要(yao)考(kao)虑适(shi)宜的(de)自动换刀(dao)的(de)条(tiao)件,又要(yao)考(kao)虑选择(ze)合适(shi)的(de)刀(dao)具结构(gou)和(he)切削(xue)用量,应尽可能(neng)(neng)(neng)在购(gou)买主(zhu)机(ji)时一并购(gou)置部分易损部件及其他附件等。

D、如(ru)果有(you)应用DNC、FMS、CIMS等的规划,或要进行网(wang)络制造(zao),则要注意通(tong)信(xin)功能,应选择具有(you)RS—232、RS—485甚至MAP网(wang)络通(tong)信(xin)、CAN总(zong)线等接口的系统(tong)。

(3)运(yun)转(zhuan)的(de)可(ke)靠性

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建议:采购用(yong)户在选型(xing)时,需要(yao)对卧式加(jia)工中心(xin)整(zheng)体的(de)结(jie)构设计、可靠性以(yi)及价加(jia)工适应性有客观的(de)认识。


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